Strand 1: American History
A study of American History is integral for students to analyze our national experience through time, to recognize the relationships of events and people, and to interpret significant patterns, themes, ideas, beliefs, and turning points in Arizona and American history. Students will be able to apply the lessons of American History to their lives as citizens of the United States.
Concept 1: Research Skills for History
Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues. By using primary and secondary sources effectively students obtain accurate and relevant information. An understanding of chronological order is applied to the analysis of the interrelatedness of events. These performance objectives also appear in Strand 2: World History. They are intended to be taught in conjunction with appropriate American or World History content, when applicable.
Concept 2: Early Civilizations Pre 1500
The geographic, political, economic and cultural characteristics of early civilizations made significant contributions to the later development of the United States.
Concept 3: Exploration and Colonization 1500s – 1700s
The varied causes and effects of exploration, settlement, and colonization shaped regional and national development of the U.S.
Concept 4: Revolution and New Nation 1700s – 1820
The development of American constitutional democracy grew from political, cultural, and economic issues, ideas, and events.
Concept 5: Westward Expansion 1800 – 1860
Westward expansion, influenced by political, cultural, and economic factors, led to the growth and development of the U.S.
Concept 6: Civil War and Reconstruction 1850 – 1877
Regional conflicts led to the Civil War and resulted in significant changes to American social, economic, and political structures.
Concept 7: Emergence of the Modern United States 1875 – 1929
Economic, social, and cultural changes transformed the U.S. into a world power.
Concept 8: Great Depression and World War II 1929 – 1945
Domestic and world events, economic issues, and political conflicts redefined the role of government in the lives of U.S. citizens.
Concept 9: Postwar United States 1945 – 1970s
Postwar tensions led to social change in the U.S. and to a heightened focus on foreign policy.
Concept 10: Contemporary United States 1970s – Present
Current events and issues continue to shape our nation and our involvement in the global community.
Strand 2: World History
A study of World History is integral for students to analyze the human experience through time, to recognize the relationships of events and people, and to interpret significant patterns, themes, ideas, beliefs, and turning points in American and world history. Students should be able to apply the lessons of World History to their lives as citizens of the United States and members of the world community.
Concept 1: Research Skills for History
Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues. By using primary and secondary sources effectively students obtain accurate and relevant information. An understanding of chronological order is applied to the analysis of the interrelatedness of events. These performance objectives also appear in Strand 1: American History. They are intended to be taught in conjunction with appropriate American or World History content, when applicable.
Concept 2: Early Civilizations
The geographic, political, economic and cultural characteristics of early civilizations significantly influenced the development of later civilizations.
Concept 3: World in Transition
People of different regions developed unique civilizations and cultural identities characterized by increased interaction, societal complexity and competition.
Concept 4: Renaissance and Reformation
The rise of individualism challenged traditional western authority and belief systems resulting in a variety of new institutions, philosophical and religious ideas, and cultural and social achievements.
Concept 5: Encounters and Exchange
Innovations, discoveries, exploration, and colonization accelerated contact, conflict, and interconnection among societies world wide, transforming and creating nations.
Concept 6: Age of Revolution
Intensified internal conflicts led to the radical overthrow of traditional governments and created new political and economic systems.
Concept 7: Age of Imperialism
Industrialized nations exerted political, economic, and social control over less developed areas of the world.
Concept 8: World at War
Global events, economic issues and political ideologies ignited tensions leading to worldwide military conflagrations and diplomatic confrontations in a context of development and change.
Concept 9: Contemporary World
The nations of the contemporary world are shaped by their cultural and political past. Current events, developments and issues continue to shape the global community.
Strand 3: Civics/Government
The goal of the civics strand is to develop the requisite knowledge and skills for informed, responsible participation in public life; to ensure, through instruction, that students understand the essentials, source, and history of the constitutions of the United States and Arizona, American institutions and ideals (ARS 15-710). Students will understand the foundations, principles, and institutional practices of the United States as a representative democracy and constitutional republic. They will understand the importance of each person as an individual with human and civil rights and our shared heritage in the United States. Students will understand politics, government, and the responsibilities of good citizenship. Citizenship skills include the capacity to influence policies and decisions by clearly communicating interests and the ability to build coalitions through negotiation, compromise, and consensus. In addition, students will learn that the United States influences and is influenced by global interaction.
Concept 1: Foundations of Government
The United States democracy is based on principles and ideals that are embodied by symbols, people and documents.
Concept 2: Structure of Government
The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers.
Concept 3: Functions of Government
Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people.
Concept 4: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship
The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in the Constitution and the nation’s history.
Concept 5: Government Systems of the World
Different governmental systems exist throughout the world. The United States influences and is influenced by global interactions.
Strand 4: Geography
The goal of the geography strand is to provide an understanding of the human and physical characteristics of the Earth’s places and regions and how people of different cultural backgrounds interact with their environment. Geographic reasoning is a way of studying human and natural features within a spatial perspective. Through the study of geography, students will be able to understand local, national, regional, and global issues. Students will interpret the arrangement and interactions of human and physical systems on the surface of the Earth. As these patterns have changed over time and are important to governments and economies, geographic reasoning will enhance students’ understanding of history, civics, and economics.
Concept 1: The World in Spatial Terms
The spatial perspective and associated geographic tools are used to organize and interpret information about people, places and environments.
Concept 2: Places and Regions
Places and regions have distinct physical and cultural characteristics.
Concept 3: Physical Systems
Physical processes shape the Earth and interact with plant and animal life to create, sustain, and modify ecosystems. These processes affect the distribution of resources and economic development. Science Strands are summarized as they apply to Social Studies content in Grades K-8. In High School, the Performance Objectives are a summary of skills and content for grades 9 -12. These concepts are reinforced in Social Studies classes, but assessed through Science.
Concept 4: Human Systems
Human cultures, their nature, and distribution affect societies and the Earth.
Concept 5: Environment and Society
Human and environmental interactions are interdependent upon one another. Humans interact with the environment- they depend upon it, they modify it; and they adapt to it. The health and well-being of all humans depends upon an understanding of the interconnections and interdependence of human and physical systems.
Concept 6: Geographic Applications
Geographic thinking (asking and answering geographic questions) is used to understand spatial patterns of the past, the present, and to plan for the future.
Strand 5: Economics
The goal of the economics strand is to enable students to make reasoned judgments about both personal economic questions and broader questions of economic policy. Students will develop an economic way of thinking and problem solving to understand and apply basic economic principles to decisions they will make as consumers, members of the workforce, citizens, voters, and participants in a global marketplace. This will prepare students to weigh both short-term and long-term effects of decisions as well as possible unintended consequences. The study of economics explains historical developments and patterns, the results of trade, and the distribution of income and wealth in local, regional, national, and world economies. Students will be able to analyze current issues and public policies and to understand the complex relationships among economic, political, and cultural systems.
Concept 1: Foundations of Economics
The foundations of economics are the application of basic economic concepts and decision-making skills. This includes scarcity and the different methods of allocation of goods and services.
Concept 2: Microeconomics
Microeconomics examines the costs and benefits of economic choices relating to individuals, markets and industries, and governmental policies.
Concept 3: Macroeconomics
Macroeconomics examines the costs and benefits of economic choices made at a societal level and how those choices affect overall economic well being.
Concept 4: Global Economics
Patterns of global interaction and economic development vary due to different economic systems and institutions that exist throughout the world.
Concept 5: Personal Finance
Decision-making skills foster a person’s individual standard of living. Using information wisely leads to better informed decisions as consumers, workers, investors and effective participants in society.